Saturday, October 25, 2014

Journals

Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover

Xiao-Peng Song, Chengquan Huang, Joseph O. Sexton, Saurabh Channan and John Townshend (2014). Annual Detection of Forest Cover Loss Using Time Series Satellite Measurements of Percent Tree Cover. Remote Sensing, 6(2072-4294), 8878-8903.

A publication as a result of the 2012-13 Green Fund Fellowship

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Contributions of Land-Use History to Carbon Accumulation in U.S. Forests

John P. Caspersen, Stephen W. Pacala, Jennifer C. Jenkins, George C. Hurtt (2000). Contributions of Land-Use History to Carbon Accumulation in U.S. Forests. Science, 290(5494), 1148-1151.

Carbon accumulation in forests has been attributed to historical changes in land use and the enhancement of tree growth by CO2 fertilization, N deposition, and climate change. The relative contribution of land use and growth enhancement is estimated by using inventory data from five states spanning a latitudinal gradient in the eastern United States. Land use is the dominant factor governing the rate of carbon accumulation in these states, with growth enhancement contributing far less than...

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Consistent Land- and Atmosphere-Based U.S. Carbon Sink Estimates

S. W. Pacala, G. C. Hurtt, D. Baker, P. Peylin, R. A. Houghton, R. A. Birdsey, L. Heath... (2001). Consistent Land- and Atmosphere-Based U.S. Carbon Sink Estimates. Science, 292(5525), 2316-2320.

For the period 1980–89, we estimate a carbon sink in the coterminous United States between 0.30 and 0.58 petagrams of carbon per year (petagrams of carbon = 1015 grams of carbon). The net carbon flux from the atmosphere to the land was higher, 0.37 to 0.71 petagrams of carbon per year, because a net flux of 0.07 to 0.13 petagrams of carbon per year was exported by rivers and commerce and returned to the atmosphere elsewhere. These land-based estimates are larger than those from previous...

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Hurricane Katrina's Carbon Footprint on U.S. Forests

Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Jeremy I. Fisher, Hongcheng Zeng, Elise L. Chapman, David Baker, George Hurtt (2007). Hurricane Katrina's Carbon Footprint on U.S. Forests. Science, 318(5850), 1107.

Hurricane Katrina's impact on U.S. Gulf Coast forests was quantified by linking ecological field studies, Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image analyses, and empirically based models. Within areas affected by relatively constant wind speed, tree mortality and damage exhibited strong species-controlled gradients. Spatially explicit forest disturbance maps coupled with extrapolation models predicted mortality and severe structural damage to ~320 million large...

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Is There a Role for Benefit-Cost Analysis in Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation?

Kenneth J. Arrow, Maureen L. Cropper, George C. Eads, Robert W. Hahn, Lester B. Lave, Roger G. Noll, (1996). Is There a Role for Benefit-Cost Analysis in Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulation?. Science, 272(5259), 221-222.

Benefit-cost analysis can play an important role in legislative and regulatory policy debates on protecting and improving health, safety, and the natural environment. Although formal benefit-cost analysis should not be viewed as either necessary or sufficient for designing sensible public policy, it can provide an exceptionally useful framework for consistently organizing disparate information, and in this way, it can greatly improve the process and, hence, the outcome of policy analysis. If...

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Equity and Greenhouse Gas Responsibility

Paul Baer, John Harte, Barbara Haya, Antonia V. Herzog, John Holdren, Nathan E. Hultman, Daniel M. K (2000). Equity and Greenhouse Gas Responsibility. Science, 289(5488), 2287.

Disagreement over principles for the inclusion of developing countries in future global greenhouse gas caps remains an obstacle to the ratification and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Baer et al. argue that a transition from allocations based on past emissions (with a "grandfather clause"), such as the Kyoto Protocol, embodies for the industrialized nations, to allocations a new regime based on equal per capita emissions rights, is a necessary and fair solution that can lead to...

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Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation

Cardinale, B.J., M.A. Palmer, and S.L. Collins (2002). Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature, 415, 426-429.

Facilitation between species is thought to be a key mechanism by which biodiversity affects the rates of use that govern the efficiency and productivity of ecosystems; however there is no direct empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we show that increasing the species diversity of a functional group of aquatic organisms induces facilitative interactions, leading to non-additive changes in resource consumption.

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Synthesizing U.S. River Restoration

Bernhardt, E.S., M. A. Palmer, J. D. Allan, .G. Alexander, S. Brooks, J. Carr, C. Dahm (2005). Synthesizing U.S. River Restoration. Science, 308, 636-637.

The importance of rivers and streams for fresh water, food, and recreation is well known, yet there is increasing evidence that degradation of running waters is at an all time high.

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Restoration of Ecosystems Services for Environmental Markets

M.A. Palmer & S. Filoso (2009). Restoration of Ecosystems Services for Environmental Markets. Science, 325, 575-576.

Ecological restoration is an activity that ideally results in the return of an ecosystem to an undisturbed state. Ecosystem services are the benefits humans derive from ecosystems. The two have been joined to support growing environmental markets with the goal of creating restoration-based credits that can be bought and sold. However, the allure of these markets may be overshadowing shortcomings in the science and practice of ecological restoration. Before making risky investments, we must...

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Mountaintop Mining Consequences

M.A. Palmer, E.S. Bernhardt, W.H. Schlesinger, K.N. Eshleman, E. Foufoula-Georgiou, M.S. Hendryx, A. (2010). Mountaintop Mining Consequences. Science, 327, 148-149.

Damage to ecosystems and threats to human health and the lack of effective mitigation require new approaches to mining regulations.

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Water Resources: Beyond Infrastructure

Palmer, M.A. (2010). Water Resources: Beyond Infrastructure. Nature, 467, 534-535.

In the developed world, responses to natural disasters such as floods or droughts often involve taming or vexing nature instead of moving people out of harm's way or rethinking water-use policies. Dams are built, levees erected, and various infrastructure projects redirect flows to nourish water-stressed regions. Ironically, such actions affect the very ecological processes and natural systems that purify, store and ensure long-term delivery of the abundant fresh water that supports ecological...

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