Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Earth & Climate News -- ScienceDaily

Earth science research and news. Read science articles on air quality, geology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology and science and the environment.
Earth & Climate News -- ScienceDaily
  1. Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake
    A new study has found that plants regulate their leaf temperature with some independence from the surrounding air temperature, a trait that increases carbon uptake through photosynthesis.
  2. Making pesticide droplets less bouncy could cut agricultural runoff
    By using a clever combination of two inexpensive additives to the spray, researchers found they can drastically cut down on the amount of liquid that bounces off plants.
  3. People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years
    Human occupation is usually associated with deteriorated landscapes, but new research shows that 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity.
  4. Environmental DNA uncovers biodiversity in rivers
    Researchers have used 'environmental DNA' to determine the biodiversity of a river. Previously, this involved collecting and identifying all the organisms living in it. Using environmental DNA, however, not only is it possible to characterize the river's biodiversity, but also that of the surrounding landscape.
  5. High seas fisheries management could recoup losses due to climate change
    Closing the high seas to fishing could increase fish catches in coastal waters by 10 percent, helping people, especially the most vulnerable, cope with the expected losses of fish due to climate change, new research finds.
  6. Quest to find the 'missing physics' at play in landslides
    A recent discovery in the study of landslides, using annular shear cell measurements of granular flows, confirms that two flow regimes -- an 'elastic regime' and an 'inertial regime' exist.
  7. Cows in glass tanks help to reduce methane emissions
    In the future, the breeding of the climate-friendly cow can be sped up by using genetic information. A recent study identifies areas in the cow’s genotype which are linked to the amount of methane it produces. Cows subjected to study did not unnecessarily chew their cuds when being placed in glass cases.
  8. Technique could assess historic changes to Antarctic sea ice, glaciers
    Historic changes to Antarctic sea ice could be unraveled using a new technique, say scientists. The new method builds on an existing technique developed over the last 10 years, which identified a means by which scientists could measure changes to sea ice in the Arctic.
  9. Interactive map shows where animals will move under climate change
    Researchers have created an animated map showing where mammals, birds and amphibians are projected to move in the Western Hemisphere in response to climate change.
  10. Solar cell is more efficient, costs less than its counterparts
    A team of researchers has developed a new solar cell that combines two different layers of sunlight-absorbing material to harvest a broader range of the sun's energy and that costs less than its counterparts.