Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Earth & Climate News -- ScienceDaily

Earth science research and news. Read science articles on air quality, geology, meteorology, oceanography, paleontology and science and the environment.
Earth & Climate News -- ScienceDaily
  1. Researchers find a new marine invertebrate species in the Weddell Sea, in the Antarctica
    The cold waters in Weddell, in the Antarctic ocean, are the environment in which a new marine invertebrate species – the nudibranchs Doto carinova – has been found.
  2. Japanese tadpoles relax in hot springs
    Japanese tadpoles can live and grow in natural hots springs, or onsen, with water temperatures as high as 46.1oC (115oF). Living in onsen may benefit the tadpoles’ immune systems, speed their growth, and allow the tadpoles to survive on small volcanic islands where there are few other natural sources of fresh water.
  3. Measure of age in soil nitrogen could help precision agriculture
    What's good for crops is not always good for the environment. Nitrogen, a key nutrient for plants, can cause problems when it leaches into water supplies. University of Illinois engineers developed a model to calculate the age of nitrogen in corn and soybean fields, which could lead to improved fertilizer application techniques to promote crop growth while reducing leaching.
  4. Less fertilizer good news for the Great Barrier Reef
    Researchers have shown a way to potentially halve the amount of fertilizer dairy farmers use while maintaining pasture yields, providing improved protection for the Great Barrier Reef.
  5. Marine carbon sinking rates confirm importance of polar oceans
    Polar oceans pump organic carbon down to the deep sea about five times as efficiently as subtropical waters, because they can support larger, heavier organisms.
  6. Before animals, evolution waited eons to inhale
    Time to smash the beaker when thinking about oxygen concentrations in water, at the time when animal life first evolved. Oceans stacked oxygen here and depleted it there, as a new novel model demonstrates. It may well toss a wrench into the way we have dated the evolution of the earliest animals.
  7. Hot desert storms increase risk of bacterial meningitis in Africa
    Exposure to airborne dust and high temperatures are significant risk factors for bacterial meningitis, a new study has found. The Sahel region of West Africa has the highest number of bacterial meningitis cases in the world. Previous studies have suggested that climate factors play a role in outbreaks, but little was known about the specific impact of climate on bacterial meningitis and how it caused disease.
  8. Unlocking the secret to cheaper solar power
    As climate change garners more attention around the world, scientists have made critical advances in understanding the physical properties of an emerging class of solar cells that have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of solar energy.
  9. Magma build-up may put Salvadoran capital at risk
    The build-up of magma six kilometres below El Salvador’s Ilopango caldera means the capital city of San Salvador may be at risk from future eruptions, researchers have found.
  10. Developing reliable renewable energy sources
    As the world’s population continues to grow, so does our consumption of natural resources. Many of these resources are non-renewable, so research into renewable sources of energy is vital. New Research is tackling this issue through reducing corrosion, improving heat transfer and fluid dynamics, and using nano coatings to enhance surface effiencies in renewable energy systems.